4.82 Communications and Equipment

4.82.2 State the transponder code a pilot should set to indicate an emergency condition. AIP ENR

The transponder code should be set to: 7700

4.82.4 State the transponder code a pilot should set to indicate a loss of communications. AIP ENR

The transponder code should be set to: 7600

4.82.6 State the transponder code a pilot should set to indicate that the aircraft is being subjected to unlawful interference. AIP ENR

The transponder code should be set to: 7500

4.82.8 Describe the means by which ATC will verify the transmission of an emergency SSR transponder code. AIP ENR

To do

4.82.10 Describe the use of the speechless technique using unmodulated transmissions. AIP ENR

When a pilot is able to communicate only by unmodulated transmissions (e.g. when the transmitter is operative but the microphone is unserviceable), the following technique will be employed by ATS:

(1) when an unmodulated transmission is heard, the ATS operator will request the pilot activate the transmitter three times; and
(2) if the pilot complies ATS will frame questions requiring “YES” or “NO” answers to determine if the aircraft:

(i) can continue visually; or
(ii) can execute an instrument approach, or has reached a nominated position.

This and any other information required will be obtained by requiring the pilot to use the following code:

(a) “YES” or “ROGER” activate transmitter once
(b) “NO” activate transmitter twice
(c) “SAY AGAIN” activate transmitter 3 times
(d) “AT NOMINATED POSITION” activate transmitter 4 times

When it is established that the pilot of the aircraft can receive transmissions, control will be exercised in the normal manner, except that frequency changes will not be requested unless there is no alternative.

4.82.12 Describe and interpret ground-air visual signal codes. AIP GEN

The standard ground–to–air visual emergency signalling code and the standard visual signalling code for communication from ground search parties to search aircraft are detailed in Table GEN 3.6-2.

Symbols should be formed by using strips of fabric, parachute material, pieces of wood, stones or any other available material, taking the following into account:

(a) Make symbols not less than 2.5 m high (larger if possible) and exactly as depicted.
(b) Provide maximum colour contrast.
(c) When ground is covered with snow, signals can be made by digging, shovelling, or trampling the snow. From the air the symbols will appear to be black.

Endeavour to attract attention by other available means such as:

(a) radio, signal light, flares, heliograph, smoke or flames;
(b) a signal consisting of a square flag with above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball;
(c) the two flag signal corresponding to the letters NC of the international Code of Signals
N — blue/white checks, 16 squares;
C — blue/white/red/white/blue horizontal bars; and
(d) sea marker dye.

4.82.14 Describe the procedures for directing a surface craft to a distress incident. AIP GEN

When it is necessary for a pilot to direct a surface craft to the place where an aircraft or surface craft is in distress, the pilot should do so by transmitting precise instructions by any means available. If such precise instructions cannot be transmitted, they should be given by carrying out the following procedure:

(a) circle the surface craft at least once;
(b) cross the projected course of the surface craft close ahead at low altitude:

(i) rocking the aircraft; or
(ii) opening and closing the throttle; or
(iii) changing the propeller pitch.

(c) then heading in the direction in which the surface craft is to be directed and
(d) repeat these procedures until the surface craft acknowledges.

Because of the high noise levels on board surface craft the sound of changes in throttle settings and propeller pitch may be less effective than rocking the aircraft, and are regarded as an alternative means of attracting attention.
Current maritime signalling procedures are:

(a) for acknowledging receipt of signals:

(i) hoisting of the “Code pennant” (vertical red and white stripes) close up (meaning understood);
(ii) flashing a succession of morse code “T”s (T -) by signal lamp;
(iii) changing of heading.

(b) for indicating inability to comply:

(i) hoisting of the international flag “N” (blue/white checks, 16 squares);
(ii) flashing a succession of morse code “N”s (N -S) by signal lamp.

4.82.16 State the procedures for the emergency activation of an ELT. AIP GEN

To prevent valuable search time being wasted it is imperative that:

(a) All ELTs are registered with RCCNZ.
(b) Any ELT that is not automatically activated is switched on as soon as possible before or after any emergency and left on until rescued.
(c) If the emergency situation is recovered, ATS or RCCNZ is notified first then the ELT is switched off.
(d) If the ELT is switched off and ATS or RCCNZ have not been notified as soon as possible, it will be assumed that the aircraft has crashed and search planning and a SAR response will have commenced.

The pilot of an aircraft in a distress situation should activate the ELT while still in flight.

4.82.18 State the pilot action required following the inadvertent transmission of an ELT. AIP GEN

Inadvertent activation of ELT has occurred on numerous occasions in New Zealand. It can occur as a result of aerobatics, hard landing, or accidental activation during aircraft servicing. To detect an inadvertent activation pilots should:

(a) prior to engine shut down at the end of each flight, tune the aircraft receiver to 121.5 MHz and listen for ELT signals; and
(b) if an ELT is heard, ensure that their own aircraft’s ELT is not operating. If it is found that it has been activated, switch it off and take the action described in 6.3.2 then switch it off.

Note: Maintenance may be required before an automatic activation unit is returned to the armed position.

Any person detecting the inadvertent activation of an ELT must report the activation immediately to the nearest ATS unit in order that any RCCNZ action commenced as a result of the transmission may be terminated.

4.82.20 State the requirements for the operational testing of an ELT. AIP GEN

Live testing of 406 MHz is NOT permitted unless coordinated with RCCNZ at least two working days prior to the test, and with notification of the ELT HexID/UiN, time and location of the test, and the person to contact during the test.

ELT transmitter test is authorised ONLY on 121.5 MHz as follows:

(a) tests should be no longer than three audio sweeps and NOT exceed 20 seconds; and
(b) tests may be conducted on 121.5 MHz only within the time period made up of the first five minutes after each hour. Emergency tests outside this time must be coordinated with both the nearest ATS unit and RCCNZ. Airborne ELT tests are NOT permitted.

4.82.22 State the procedures to be followed on receiving an ELT signal. AIP GEN

On receiving an ELT signal, pilots must report the following information to the nearest ATS unit:

(a) aircraft position and time when the signal was first heard;
(b) aircraft position and time when the signal was last heard;
(c) aircraft position at maximum signal strength; and
(d) aircraft level, strength and frequency of emergency signal on 121.5 MHz.